|— city —|
|Population||549000 (2011[//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kolhapur&action=edit [update]])|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
• 569 metres (1,867 ft)
Kolhapur (Marathi: कोल्हापूर) is a city situated in the southwest corner of Maharashtra, India. The population of Kolhapur city was 5,49,283, as per the 2011 census. Kolhapur also serves as the headquarters of the Kolhapur district. As is the case in most of the Maharashtra cities, the main language spoken in Kolhapur is Marathi. Kolhapur is situated on the banks of the river Panchganga and is the location of the Temple of Mahalakshmi, a Hindu goddess.
According to Hindu mythology, Kolhapur was settled by Kolhasur, a demon who was later killed by Mahalakshmi to relieve the local populace. However, honouring the demon's dying wish, the city was named after him. Kolhapur was a major and most popular Buddhist destination during 6th century BC. However, Kolhapur finds mentions in Devi Gita, the final and most important chapter of the Srimad Devi Bhagawatam, as one the important places of Shakti worship, "Devi spoke:..."O King of Mountains! Still I am now telling something out of My affection to My Bhaktas. Hear. There is a great place of pilgrimage named Kolhapura in the southern country. Here the Devi Laksmi always dwells...."
It's said famous Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha Nrupathunga I (800–878 CE) deeply cared for his subjects and once when a calamity threatened to harm them, he offered his finger as a sacrifice to the goddess Mahalakshmi of Kolhapur.
During 940-1212 CE, it was the capital of the Shilahara dynasty of Kolhapur. An inscription at Teradal mentions that king Gonka was healed from snakebite by a Jain monk and Gonk had built a temple of Lord Neminath. Many Jain temples in that region build in the next couple of century are called Gonka-Jinalya after him. During the reign of Bhoja I, a dynamic Acharya Maghanandi helped establish an institute at Rupanarayana-Basadi. Several of the kings and nobles of the dynasty were disciples of Maghanandi. Maghanandi is often called Siddhanta-chakravarti i.e. the great master of the scriptures, Gandaraditya I was his disciple. He is sometimes called "Kolapuriya" or walyaa to distinguish him from many other Acharyas with the name Maghanandi.
Kolhapur was the site of intense confrontation between the Western Chalukyas and the Chola kings Rajadhiraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola II. Following the Battle of Koppam in 1052, Rajendra Chola II marched on to Kolhapur and erected a jayastambha or victory pillar in the city.
The Kopeshwar (shiva) Temple, located in Kolhapur district, was built by Shilahara King Gandaraditya, Vijayaditya and Bhoj-II between 1109 and 1178 AD. It is nearly capital in time of Queen Tararani who is daughter in law of Chh. Shivaji Maharaj. Kolhapur, historically had a major influence and connections with the prevalent kingdoms of Greece/Rome, the availability of bust of Poseidon, the Greek god of sea at one of the excavated site of Kolhapur shows the relations of trade and co-operation shared with both kingdoms
Kolhapur city is located in south-westen Maharashtra at . It has an elevation of 569 metres (1867 ft) which is higher than that of Pune. Hence its climate is usually pleasant. By road, Kolhapur is 228 km south of Pune, 615 km north-west of Bangalore and 530 km west of Hyderabad. The nearest cities and towns within Maharashtra are Ichalkaranji (20 km), Kagal (17 km), Sangli (50 km), and Miraj (45 km).
Kolhapur's climate is a blend of coastal and inland climate of Maharashtra. The temperature has a relatively narrow range between 10°C to 35°C. Summer in Kolhapur is comparatively cooler, but much more humid, compared to neighbouring inland cities. Maximum temperatures rarely exceed 38°C and typically range between 33 to 35°C. Lows during this season are around 24°C to 26°C. The city receives abundant rainfall from June to September due to its proximity to the Western Ghats. The heavy rains often lead to severe flooding in these months. Temperatures are low in the rainy season and range between 19°C to 30°C. Kolhapur experiences winter from November to February. The winter temperatures are a bit higher compared to other cities in Maharashtra such as Pune and Nasik. Lows range from 9°C to 16°C while highs are in the range of 26°C to 32°C due to its high elevation and being adjacent to the Western Ghats. Humidity is low in this season making weather much more pleasant. In 2005 & 2006 there was excessive rainfall in Kolhapur resulting in floods.
Majority of the city dwellers are Marathas along with smaller communities of Gujaratis, Brahmins, Buddhists, Marwadis, Maharashtrian Jains, kannadigas mainly Lingayats and Sindhis with few poulation of Muslims. Kolhapur has the distinction of having two Bhattaraka seats, that of Lakshmisena Swami and of Jinasena Swami which has shifted from Nandni to Kolhapura. Many peoples are found koli-mahadev tribal community, in village Kamewadi & Chinchane in chandgad taluka and Basarge, Nul & Mutnal in Gadhinglaj taluka.
Trade is mostly dependent on farming of cash crops like sugarcane, the metal industry with important inputs from textiles and mining. The prosperity and the resulting spending prowess of the Kolhapuri people was famously reported in a list of cities with the highest number of Mercedes cars in the state of Maharashtra, where Kolhapur came second only to Mumbai. Similarly, Kolhapur also attracts lots of shoppers from around the region. The main shopping hub of the city is Mahadwar Road, near Mahalaxmi Temple inside the old city walls. Showrooms of adidas, RBK, Wrangler, Pepe Jeans, Indian terrain, Turtle etc. and food chains like Dominoes, Naturals ice-creams, CCD, Mcdonalds have also popped up in the historically residential area, Rajarampuri. Kolhapur is famous for its Kolhapuri chappal footwear.
Another field that Kolhapur prides itself of is films. In certain circles, Kolhapur was and is still considered the capital of the Marathi film industry. Legendary personalities like Bhalaji Pendharkar, Baburao Painter and V. Shantaram started their careers from Kolhapur. It has been credited as the place where Raja Harishchandra, the first feature film ever produced in India was conceptualised. Kolhapur still plays host to many film festivals and provides location for shooting. A popular location for filming has been the Rankala Lake, Banks of the river Panchganga, Panhala Fort, local farms, Mahalakshmi temple and also a residential estate called Ruikar Colony, which boasts of most beautiful bungalows, the latest cars- Mercedes, BMWs, Audis, Chevrolets and Volkswagens, along with landscaped gardens and well concentualised roads.
The most recent award-winning Marathi film "Natrang" and many others are shot in Kolhapur.
Kolhapur has three main industrial corporations (MIDC)outside the city namely Shiroli, Gokul Shirgaon and five star MIDC at Kagal.There is also an old industrial estate known as Udyamnagar within the city. Kolhapur is not only famous as a tourist place but also it is one of the most important places for foundry businesses. Most of the foundries are in the sand casting. Castings manufactured in Kolhapur are recognized globally for their accuracy and finish. Mechanical industries in Kolhapur are the major suppliers to the OEM customers like Tata, Bajaj, Mahindra and Mahindra, General Motors, etc.
Kolhapur railway station known as Chattrapati Shahu Maharaj Terminus is connected to major Indian cities. Mumbai, Pune, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Solapur, Nagpur, Tirupati, Ahmedabad, Delhi, Dhanbad are directly connected from Kolhapur through express trains. There are daily passenger shuttle services between Kolhapur to Miraj
Kolhapur is connected to Mumbai to the north and Bangalore to the south by National Highway 4 which is further extended to Chennai. It is one of the primary destinations on this highway. Kolhapur has state transport bus stands namely Central Bus Stand (CBS), Rankala & Sambhajinagar. Kolhapur Municipal Transport buses covers almost all routes inside the city.
The city has an airport near Ujlaiwadi.
Kolhapur is one of the ideal cities in Maharashtra to pursue higher educations. Shivaji University established in 1962, is located in Kolhapur is best known for the educational quality after Mumbai and Pune University in Maharashtra. City has two medical and three engineering colleges.
There are lot of other institutes in kolhapur which provide Ayurvedic, homeopathic and pharmacy courses. The famous schools in Kolhapur are Chhatrapati shahu vidyalaya, Holy Cross Convent School,New Model English School, St. Xaviers High School, Private High School etc. Holy Cross Convent School an all girls school is one of the top schools of Kolhapur with great academic excellence. Chhatrapati shahu vidyalaya is in New palace area. It is very good school. There are many residential schools being established in the city. St Xaviers High School is one of the best in the cities. It is more than fifty years old, and is known for its high quality education
Though Kolhapur is famous for Wrestling but their favorite sport is football. There are many tournaments organised during winter and summer session in Ch. Shahu Maharaj Stadium. and famous for a CRICKET PLAY the games on ch.Shivaji maharaj Stadium
Kolhapur has also contributed in olympic level games such as shooting, swimming. Golden girl Tejaswini Sawant is from this city who has won gold medal in rifle shooting event at Munich, Germany. She is the first woman shooter representing India who has won gold medal in this event. One of the best swimmers in India Virdhawal Khade is from Kolhapur who has won medals in national as well as international events. Kolhapur's new rising sport is karting with a dedicated karting track by Mohite's Academy and training facility has seen many young boys and girls take part in National level Karting events.
Suhas Khamkar is a professional bodybuilder who drew inspiration from Arnold Schwarzenegger and embarked on a journey of becoming a world champion in the sport of bodybuilding.
The city also lends its name to many common products such as Kolhapuri Lavangi Mirchi, Kolhapuri Gul and Kolhapuri Masala. Most of the preparations in Kolhapuri cuisine consists of "Kolhapuri Masala". The most famous part of the Kolhapuri cuisine is the red meat preparations called Tambada Rassa (Red Curry) and Pandhara Rassa (White Curry), Sukaa Mutton (Dry Meat) and Kolhapuri Misal. Jaggery is produced here in large scale due to large production of Sugarcane. Kolhapuri chappals are famous in the world.